ВЛИЯНИЕ ТИПА ПОЛИТИЧЕСКОГО РЕЖИМА НА ВНЕШНЮЮ ПОЛИТИКУ ГОСУДАРСТВ: ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЕ ПОДХОДЫ

Елизавета Окунева / Elizaveta Okuneva

Аннотация


В статье рассматриваются существующие теоретические и эмпирические подходы к исследованию влияния типа политического режима (демократического, авторитарного и гибридного) на внешнюю политику. В частности, автор предпринимает попытку теоретического обоснования того, насколько тип политического режима влияет на степень участия государств в межгосударственных конфликтах. Особый интерес представляет внешняя политика стран с гибридным типом политического режима как гипотетически наиболее непредсказуемая и агрессивная. В статье анализируются такие теории и подходы, как теория «демократического мира» (включая изучение влияния типа политического режима на характер и продолжительность войн, их причины и результаты), исследования, посвященные внешней политике государств с гибридным типом политического режима, интерпретация внешней политики государства через институциональный анализ его политического режима.

На основе анализа литературы автор приходит к выводам о том, что проблема влияния политического режима на внешнюю политику государства остается не исследованной достаточно системно, особенно в рамках теории международных отношений, затрагивающей фактор влияния политического режима, но в большей степени рассматривающей влияние внутренней политики на внешнюю в целом. Кроме того, большинство исследований фокусируется на внешнеполитическом поведении демократических и авторитарных режимов, в частности, с целью подтверждения или опровержения теории «демократического мира» И. Канта, оставляя за рамками поведение государств с гибридным типом политического режима. Немногочисленные исследования внешней политики государств с гибридным типом политического режима ставят во главу угла государства в процессе демократического транзита, однако практически не уделяют внимания государствам, находящимся в процессе отката от демократии и стабильным гибридным режимам. Помимо этого, в данных исследованиях не учтены ситуации, когда гибридные режимы выступают инициаторами международных конфликтов.

 

DOI: 10.17072/2218-1067-2019-2-27-37


Ключевые слова


политический режим; демократический режим; демократия; авторитарный режим; автократия; гибридный режим; внешняя политика; конфликты

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Литература


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