Гендерные аспекты истории Запада: основные дискуссионные поля

D. B. Vershinina

Аннотация


Статья посвящена основным этапам развития женских и гендерных исследований в западной исторической науке. На примере эволюции женской истории, мужской истории, гендерной истории и квир-исследований во второй половине XX – начале XXI в. Определяются специфические условия и ключевые направления развития нескольких дисциплинарных полей, объединенных интересом к проблемам пола и сексуальности в историческом ракурсе. Обращается внимание прежде всего на американскую и британскую историографию, как отражающую основные западные тенденции. Выделяются проблемы, с которыми сталкивались исследователи в рамках женской, мужской, гендерной и квир-истории, и ставится вопрос о взаимосвязи и различии указанных отраслей научного знания. Делается акцент на важных теориях, которые легли в основу гендерной истории. В центре внимания оказываются теория социального конструирования гендера, сформулированная в социологии, теория интерсекциональности, возникшая на стыке гендера и критической расовой теории, идеи постструктуралистов, внесшие вклад в переосмысление сексуальности и идентичности. Значение каждой теории рассматривается на примере конкретных исторических исследований. Отдельное внимание уделяется факторам перехода от женских к гендерным исследованиям и предпосылкам формулирования концепта гендера в исторической науке и других общественных дисциплинах. Выделение основных этапов развития женской, мужской, гендерной истории и квир-исследований, а также характеристика тематики современных гендерных исследований, осуществляемых западными историками, позволяют сделать вывод о существенной эволюции и диверсификации исследований по гендерной тематике в западной исторической науке и гуманитаристике в целом.

doi 10.17072/2219-3111-2017-4-172-182


Ключевые слова


женская история; гендер; гендерные исследования; мужские исследования; интерсекциональная теория; квир-теория

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Литература


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